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Subseries
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Beatrice Millar Card Catalogue

Subseries consists of Beatrice Millar's index cards, originally in rolling indexes, and used in the course of her work at the B.C. Hydro Home Services Centre. Includes contact information for individuals and organizations, househould cleaning and laundry tips, food procurement and food preservation advice, and recipes.

Sharron J. Simpson Photographs

Series consists of photographs taken by, or collected by, Sharron J. Simpson. Subjects documented include sawmill operations, 1999 reunion of former S.M.S. Ltd. employees, and the Okanagan fruit industry, as well as deliberate photographs taken preserving images of S.M.S. memorabilia.

Simpson, Sharron J.

Sharron J. Simpson Research Files

Series consists of materials documenting Sharron J. Simpson’s efforts to collect external information about various aspects of her family history centering mainly on the history of S.M.S. Ltd., but not including research particular to the Simpson Covenant, which is kept separate.
In addition to the collection of published materials (predominantly newspapers) the series also includes recorded oral histories and select transcripts.

Simpson, Sharron J.

Simpson Covenant Court Case

Series documents Sharron J. Simpson’s activism as the leader of a legal initiative challenging the proposed dissolution of the Simpson Covenant, a restrictive land sale agreement made between her grandfather, Stanley M. Simpson and the City of Kelowna in 1946.
To explain the context of the creation of the covenant: following a mill fire on S.M.S. Ltd. land on what is now Kelowna’s downtown waterfront (around the area known as Manhattan Point) S.M. Simpson sold this land to the City of Kelowna with the understanding that S.M. would sell at a reduced rate, and the City of Kelowna would agree that the land be used for civic or community (not commercial) purposes. In the 2000s, the City of Kelowna moved to dissolve the so-called “Simpson Covenant,” and in response Sharron J. Simpson launched a court challenge to enforce the maintenance of the covenant.
Series contains correspondence, legal documents (including petitions, reasons for judgment, affidavits, civic records and land title office records, City of Kelowna memoranda, press clippings and press releases, appraisal records, etc.).

Simpson, Sharron J.

Crown Zellerbach Canada (Southern Interior Wood Products) Labour Relations

Subseries consists of documentation of Crown Zellerbach Canada’s interactions with its workers, as well as their labour union, the International Woodworkers’ Association.
Subseries contains primary instance documents including forms (blank and completed), collective agreements, meeting minutes, seniority lists, job categorization lists, correspondence, committee rosters, contracts, bulletins, etc.

Crown Zellerbach Canada

Crown Zellerbach Canada (Southern Interior Wood Products) Operations Files

Subseries consists of partial documentation of the substantial forestry, logging, and sawmill operations conducted by Crown Zellerbach Canada (Southern Interior Wood Products) during the 1960s through 1980s. Predominantly, this subseries is comprised of prepared reports, prospectuses, industrial profiles, and descriptions of assets, work processes, and mill specifications.

Crown Zellerbach Canada

Crown Zellerbach Canada (Southern Interior Wood Products) Photographs

Subseries consists of photographs created or acquired by Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd. This aggregation consists of photographs concerning the former S.M. Simpson Ltd. mills as well as other mills purchased by Crown Zellerbach Canada at the same time.
The majority of these images are contact prints of aerial photographs from commercial photography studios, commissioned by Crown Zellerbach Canada:
Hans Giesen of British Columbia Ltd.
Jennings Ltd. Photography
Images depict sites, workers, events, processes, and capital projects at Crown Zellerbach mills, including those holdings in Enderby, Armstrong, Falkland, Monte Lake, Lumby, and Kelowna.

Crown Zellerbach Canada

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Plywood Plant

Subseries consists of compiled records, photographs, and memorabilia commemorating and documenting the development, launch, and reception of the S.M. Simpson Ltd. Plywood plant between the years 1957 and 1959.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Labour Relations Files

Subseries consists of documentation of the interactions between S.M. Simpson Ltd. and its workforce.
Includes union documents featuring collective agreements, union charters, legal records of dispute, seniority lists, wage lists, payroll records, and pension plan documents,

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Publicity Files

Subseries contains newspaper clippings, copies of newspaper clippings, and tear sheets from publications which provide press coverage of the activities of S.M. Simpson Ltd. and which were published during the operational tenure of the business.
Subjects covered include the opening of the plywood plant in 1957, labour union disputes and strikes, mill fires, land sales, news of the acquisition of S.M. Simpson Ltd. By Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd., and various advertisements placed by the company.
Related retrospective press coverage written and published recently, particularly in reference to the Simpson Covenant can be found in the Simpson Covenant series of the Sharron J. Simpson sous fonds.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Civic Engagement

Subseries contains documentation of the awarding of the Freedom of the City of Kelowna to S.M. Simpson in 1957
Includes declaration, speaking notes, and other documents. Related photographs available in S.M. Simpson Photographic Record subseries.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Administrative Files

Subseries contains documentation of the auxiliary functions of S.M. Simpson Ltd. carried out in support of substantive mill and wood processing operations.
Includes correspondence, meeting minutes, organizational chart, and document register.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Operations Files

Subseries consists of contractor information, mill operations specifications and rules, notes, reports, customer and sales information, compiled descriptions of forestry sites, strategic planning, and geographical resources

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Financial Files

Subseries consists of remaining financial records describing the debits and credits of S.M. Simpson prior to the founding of S.M. Simpson Ltd, as well as those generated as a natural by-product of operations of the enterprise, S.M. Simpson Ltd.
Contents of series include banking records, invoices, company financial reports, and payroll & remittances to Workman’s Compensation (currently known as WorkSafe BC).

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Legal Files

Subseries consists of legal records including contracts, briefs, land titles, licenses, patents created by S.M.S. Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Artifacts

Subseries consists of various artifacts in wood, metal, fabric, paper and other materials, generated in the normal pursuit of business by S.M. Simpson and/or deliberately created as souvenirs.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Retrospectives

Subseries consists of various compiled manuscripts and informally published materials either relating directly to the historical narrative of S.M. Simpson Ltd. or to aspects of its operations.
Date range extends beyond the corporate existence of S.M. Simpson Ltd but is included in the series and parent series because of its pertinence to the company.

S.M. Simpson Ltd. Photographs

The subseries consists of commissioned commercial photography (portraits, candids, aerials) carried out primarily by three firms (Aero Surveys Ltd., ca. 1948 to 1958; Jennings Ltd. Photography, ca. 1971 to 1974; and Hans Giesen of British Columbia Ltd. ca.1973). None of these firms have a current detectable presence. Other commercial photographers include Jack Cash Photographic Studio, Pope's Studio, Paul Ponich, Kermode Studio, and Ribelin Photography. Of these, only Pope's Studio is clearly still extant. Other photographs originate from the mill(s) proper, and yet others have been collected from third parties' personal photo collections (acquired or copcopied) by Sharron J. Simpson. There are a total of approximately 2,350 images in the form of photographs, scans & photocopies on paper, slide transparencies, negatives, and contact prints documenting mill business (under various nomenclature and ownership) during the years ca. 1910 to 1994, in colour and black & white, with sizes ranging from oversize posters to 10x12cm prints.

S.M. Simpson Ltd.

Frank Hunter collection

Biographical sketch:
Frank Hunter (b. 1909, d. ?) was born in Garneil, Montana, and immigrated with his parents to Saskatchewan as an infant. As a young man he ventured into the Peace River country of northern British Columbia. He married his wife, Doreen Hunter, in 1951 in Baldonnel, BC. They had two children.

Frank Hunter worked as a farmer upon his arrival in the Peace, and later on as a railroad surveyor and served as a school trustee during the 1950s.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of Hunter family photographs captured from about 1927 through the 1940s, as well as supporting textual reference materials. Photographs were taken by a Kodak Brownie box camera. Photographs depict images of landscapes, infrastructure (bridges and railroads), agriculture, rodeo, and pioneer family life in the Peace River region of British Columbia. Also includes a small subset of 35mm negative strips and 15cm x 13 cm photographic prints dated to 1992, taken by Sandy Baker, and documenting the same geographical area.

Valentine Carmichael Haynes collection

Biographical sketch:
Valentine Carmichael Haynes (21 December, 1875 – 1963?) was the first of many white settlers to be born in Osoyoos. He worked as a rancher all his life and was highly skilled in this area. Haynes married Elizabeth Runnels (d. 1942), niece of Nespelem George, a First Nations chief with described kinship to the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. Runnels was an artist (oil) and interpreter. One daughter, Alice, married a Thompson.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of documentation of Valentine Haynes and his family, as well as the Okanagan Cattle Company, of which Haynes was founder, all in the approximate area of Osoyoos, BC. Photographs depict ranching scenes, landscapes, and family life; textual materials include banking records, biographical sketches, Okanagan Cattle Company records, and genealogical information.

Joe Harris collection

Biographical sketch:
Joseph Gleason Harris (b. 1910 July 6, d.1994 December 26) arrived in Penticton in 1917. At age 16 he was invited by Frank Richter, Jr., to the Richter Ranch in Keremeos, from which point he visited the Cathedral Mountains for the first time. Later, in 1939, Harris and Herb Clark of Keremeos launched a pack horse business which would take tourists to visit the Cathedrals. In 1944 he entered the ranching industry and in 1946 took over what was previously Ralph Overton’s ranch. This site was later home to Apex Mountain Guest Ranch. 1946 also saw the launch of a heavy equipment business.

Joe Harris and Margaret “Peggy” Burgess married 1945 April 4 and they made their home in Penticton. Together they raised seven children.

Joe Harris also was heavily involved in civic service. Harris served as the chairman of the Central Welfare Committee for fifteen years throughout the 1930s and 1940s. From 1950-1957, Harris also served as an Alderman on the Penticton City Council. Harris was a member of the Penticton Hospital Board for sixteen years and initiated a local volunteer search and rescue group. Harris participated in many local rescues himself.

Harris was also instrumental in local heritage initiatives and worked as the curator of the R.N. Atkinson (Penticton) Museum from 1973-1984. His deep knowledge of the history of the area poised him to deliver educational lectures to various organizations and to serve as president of the Penticton branch of the Okanagan Historical Society for five years.

Harris was an avid photographer, and won many awards. His photographic record documents local places and events throughout the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s.

Harris was a close associate and valuable historical source for Doug Cox during his writing career.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of original photographs taken by Joe Harris as well as some pieces collected by Joe Harris and then subsequently transferred to the custody of Doug Cox. Predominant photographic coverage relates to the Cathedral Mountains, south of Keremeos, BC, during the 1930s. Includes a sequence of interviews with Joe Harris, and some associated transcripts.

George Allen Aerial Photography Ltd. collection

George Allen Aerial Photography was a photo studio based in Vancouver, BC.
Subseries consists primarily of 25cm x 20 cm b&w photographs with George Allen Photos Ltd., 4609 Main Street, Vancouver BC.
Locales photographed include Okanagan, Thompson, Cariboo, Kootenay, and Boundary regions.

Lillian Estabrooks collection

Biographical sketch:
Lillian Estabrooks (née Gibson), occasionally known as Bill Gibson, (b. 1902 August 1 in Almada, SK, d. 2003 August 17 in Penticton, BC) grew up in Keremeos. She and husband Richard (Dick) Estabrooks had three children. In 1981 under the pen name Bill Gibson she collaborated with Doug Cox to publish Under The K: Memories of Growing Up in Keremeos. Lillian Estabrooks was also a regular contributor to the Okanagan Historical Society annual reports.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of materials with provenance or pertinence to Lillian Estabrooks. Subseries is predominantly composed of photographs taken, collected, or otherwise attributed to Lillian Estabrooks, primarily during the years 1913-1920. Subseries also includes collected manuscripts, family trees, and notes, and one interview by Doug Cox with “Billy Estabrooks.”

Reverend A.H. Cameron collection

Reverend A.H. Cameron arrived in Keremeos in 1906 and established a Presbyterian church where he presided as its first minister for many years. He captured a large number of pictures during his tenure, leaving a photographic record of local affairs. Subseries consists of photographs attributed to him.

Apex Mountain collection

Subseries consists of a collection of documents covering the inception and development of Apex Mountain Resort near Penticton, BC. Includes form letters to Apex members, reports, and some financial statements. Also included is a collection of promotional brochures from the 1970s – 1990s

An additional sequence of photographs related to Apex Mountain can also be found in series 1.3-1 (Historical Photograph Collection) at the item range 1.3-1/00766 – 1.3-1/00813.

Brent family collection

Biographical sketch:
Alexander Theodore “Sandy” Brent (1912-1990) was as lifelong resident of the South Okanagan. After the death of his mother in the influenza epidemic of 1918, he and his siblings (Frederick (Eddie), Mary, Alice, Margaret and Donald) were raised by his grandparents at the Shingle Creek Ranch. Brent married Harriet Morgan and together they raised two sons (Kenneth (b. 1942) and George (b. 1945). His sister Alice married Hal Tweddle; she and her family is photographically documented in the Richter and Tweddle families collection.

The Brents lived variously in Allen Grove, St. Andrews by the Lake, and Penticton. Sandy Brent worked in ranching, hard rock mining (Nickel Plate mine above Hedley), logging, and finally as a foreman and later superintendent for the Hatfield family’s Interior Contracting Company.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of recorded interview and transcripts of recorded interviews. Not all audio recordings associated with transcripts are extant; likewise not all audio tapes have an associated recording. Content of interviews includes personal reminiscences, descriptions of photographs, and family histories. Subseries also includes a suite of interviews with his sisters, Margaret, Alice, and Margaret.

General research files

Series consists of the accumulation of research materials compiled by Doug Cox in support of his author and historian function, and presumed compiled predominantly during the 1980s and 1990s. This series is defined by its collection and/or photocopying from existing published sources and/or other resources, for which the originals reside both within and without the Cox Collection.

Series is composed predominantly of original and photocopied tear sheets from various periodical publications (with emphasis on the annual reports of the Okanagan Historical Society, which have been digitized in full), monograph publications, photocopied photographs with identifying annotations, photocopies of correspondence, some original correspondence, and notes.

Ed Aldredge collection

Biographical sketch:
Edgar “Eddie” Wilfrid Aldredge (1901-1992) was one of Penticton’s best known residents. After having worked stints with on the railroad with CPR and in the mining industry with Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company (Trail) in his youth, Aldredge returned to Penticton and began his career as a journalist with the Penticton Herald newspaper in the 1920s. He eventually settled into writing a recurring column dedicated to profiling prominent white settler families of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Later, he wrote a similar column for Okanagan Sunday. He married Winnfred Sadler of Kaleden (d. 1986) in 1963. Ed Aldredge was awarded the City of Penticton’s Merit award for his contributions to the community at in 1973 at the age of 72.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of 265 photographs taken by Ed Aldredge of notable people, structures, landmarks, and events in Penticton, BC. The subseries consists secondarily of a collection of his published columns in the Penticton Herald and Okanagan Sunday as clippings, mounted in two large scrapbooks.

R.D. Symonds collection

Subseries consists of photographic materials attributed to photographer R.D. Symonds per various identifying annotations by Doug Cox. Geographical coverage is predominantly the south Okanagan - Kaleden and Okanagan Falls - with predominant association with the ranching industry.

Lumb Stocks collection

Biographical sketch:
Lumb Stocks (b. 1887 in Leicester, England, d. 1947 in Penticton, BC) immigrated to Kelowna in 1910. He traveled back in England in 1915 to marry his wife, Marion. Together they had five children: Peter, Beryl, Jack, Daphne, and David.

In Vernon, Stocks purchased a camera from G.H.E. “Huddy” Hudson. Soon Stocks was offered a job by Hudson and he joined his photography studio. He became a partner and took over operations of the firm in 1916 when Hudson returned to England during WWI, renaming the enterprise “Hudson-Stocks & Co.” After deciding to stay permanently in England, Hudson asked Stocks in 1918 to buy out his partnership. Instead Stocks made a purchase from Hudson and his Penticton partner, Ken Chadwick, for the photography firm there and moved his family to the Penticton area.

Lumb Stocks’ second son, Jack Stocks, took over the business upon his father’s death in 1947, and maintained the Stocks Photography until his own untimely death in 1979.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of photographic record captured by Lumb Stocks and/or Jack Stocks and/or on behalf of Stocks Camera Shop, Penticton BC. These are commercial, professional photographs and the collection features an insignificant number of portraits or candid shots. The majority of the photographs were created during the lifetime of Lumb Stocks, and a minority by Jack Stocks, his successor.

Subseries documents landscapes, city scenes, events, disasters, buildings, and landmarks associated with Penticton, BC, primarily during the first half of the twentieth century.

Suite of postcards features a small subset of hand-tinted examples.

Savona research collection

Subseries comprises the deliberate collecting activity of Ed Villiers and provides documentation of approximately one century of Savona history, which is today west of Kamloops on the shore of Kamloops Lake where the Thompson River has its egress. Originally, Savona was situated on the north shore of Kamloops Lake and represented the terminus of the stage coach line from Cache Creek on the Cariboo Wagon Road. It was also the site of a lake steamboat harbor which carried goods and passengers toward the Shuswap. As rail service was developed on the south shore of Kamloops lake, the decision was made to relocate the town in the 1880s- the relocation was executed by mechanism of pulling structures across the frozen lake during the winter.

Subseries features in large part copied tear sheets of other historical sources, as well as original manuscripts prepared by Ed Villers for the Savona Community Heritage Committee. Other records include census documents, town directories and other documentation.

Richter and Tweddle families collection

Biographical sketch:
The Tweddle and Richter families the Similkameen and South Okanagan have robust ties.

Richter: Francis Xavier Richter (1837-1910) was born in Freidland, Bohemia on November 5, 1837. In 1864 arrived in the Okanagan/Similkameen area to start cattle ranching. He and Lucy Simla (1846-1903, also notated as Lucy simla Acat, also notated as Lucy Sʔímlaʔxʷ), a member of the Okanagan First Nation from Vernon, BC, were married in 1867 or 1868. They had 5 sons: Charles (1869-1949), William (1872-1922), Joseph (1874-1971), Edward (1876-1971), and John “Hans” Richter (1877-1961).

Prior to the death of his first wife, Lucy Simla, F.X. Richter married Florence Elizabeth Loudon (1877 – 1959) in 1894 and subsequently fathered six more children: Betty, Freida, Frances, Helen, Kathleen, Francis X. Richter Jr. F.X. Richter’s oldest son, Charles, married Florence Loudon’s sister, Ada, in 1900 (Sources: OHS Report 14)

Richter has been described as being responsible for starting the fruit industry in the Similkameen Valley and he had a major orchard operation.

Tweddle: Haliburton “Harry” Tweddle (1876-1957) married Florence Elizabeth Richter (née Loudon, F.X. Richter’s second wife and widow) in 1912. They had 4 children: Haliburton T. (Hal), Margaret, Eileen, and Willa. (Source: OHS report 23). Harry Tweddle owned the Central Hotel in Keremeos, B.C., and operated a ranch, livery stable and stage line serving the Similkameen Valley.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of photographic and textual documentation of the F.X. Richter and Halliburton Tweddle families, as conjoined by Elizabeth Loudon, in the South Okanagan and Similkameen regions. Photographic subject matter treats themes of ranching and orcharding; textual records include copies of correspondence, wills, family trees, etc.

Penticton Herald photograph collection

Subseries consists of an acquisition by Doug Cox of a collection of photographic negatives from the newspaper The Penticton Herald.

Coverage includes themes such as the cultural events, sports, rodeo, telecommunications, buildings and community infrastructure, aviation, industry, disasters.

Penticton area research collection

Subseries consists of a photographic and oral history record of Penticton civic life from approximately 1910 through the mid 1970s, with predominant coverage during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Materials relate to sports, cultural events, landmarks and buildings, industry, transportation & infrastructure, and agriculture. Many of the photographs can likely be attributed to the Penticton Herald.

Archibald Murchie collection

Biographical sketch:
Archibald Murchie (1852-1930) immigrated to Victoria, BC as an adult. His brother, Thomas Murchie would go on to found Murchie’s Tea and name his own son Archibald Murchie (1892-1925, and not to be confused with his namesake). Following his calling to become an evangelist minister for the Spiritualist Church (an off-shoot of the Church of England), he set off into the interior of BC to preach as a missionary.

Although Murchie had dabbled in photography prior to coming to Canada, his career began in earnest when he arrived in Williams Lake, BC, in 1893. Wherever his missionary calling took him, Murchie brought along his camera. Marcus Smith, famed CPR engineer and previous associate of Murchie’s by function of their common membership to the Spiritualist Church, hired Murchie to photograph the creation of a bridge over the Fraser River at Sheep Creek. Work on this project was slow enough to afford Murchie to engage in side trips to Quenel, BC, and farther north. Here he made a connection with the Reverend A. H. Cameron who suggested he establish a parish in Princeton. After this failed, Murchie returned to the Cariboo and set up a photography studio in Ashcroft, BC.

In 1911 Murchie moved again to the Okanagan Valley and in 1916 at age 64 he married Amy Wood. His last attributed photograph was taken in 1918.

Scope and content:
Landscapes showing developing infrastructure in the interior of British Columbia in the later 19th and early 20th century, with especially robust coverage of the construction of railroads and bridges, as well as some mining operations. Features group portraits of work crews.

Historical mining research collection

Subseries consists of collected materials with pertinence to the mining industry in the late 19th and early 20th century in the Kootenay, Boundary, and Similkameen regions of British Columbia.
Includes collected photographs, clippings, government publications, maps (mineral claims) and textual records.

Subseries documents the Nickel Plate and Mascot mines near Hedley, BC, and several short-lived mining boom towns in the Kootenays and Boundary country (Phoenix, Camp McKinney) as well as Blakeburn and Coalmont (also now abandoned) in the Similkameen.

George Meeres collection

Biographical sketch:
George Albert Meeres (1878-1972), photographer and artist, was born in Grimsby, England in 1878. He emigrated to Canada in 1906. In 1910, he and partner Arthur John Lawrence purchased a photo studio from James Fenton in Russell, Manitoba. The partnership of Lawrence & Meeres continued until 1917 when it was dissolved. Meeres carried on under the name of George A. Meeres, Photographer, until 1925 when he sold the business and moved to Nelson, B.C. He purchased the Campbell Art Gallery, changing its name to George A. Meeres, Photographer. After a short time in Grindrod, he moved to Vernon, B.C., opening Meeres' Photographic and Art Studio in 1940. He specialized in portraits, wedding photos, and hand colouring. His studio operated in Vernon until 1968 and George Meeres died in Vernon in 1972 at the age of 94.

Scope and content:
Subseries consists of professional photographs captured by George Albert Meeres. Geographies documented centre on the Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson regions ranging from Osoyoos, BC (southern boundary of coverage) to Revelstoke, BC (north-eastern boundary of coverage) and Chase, BC (northwestern boundary of coverage). Includes Penticton, Oyama, Winfield, Okanagan Centre, Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Falkland, Enderby, Salmon Arm, Grindrod, Sicamous, Malakwa, Tappen – with predominant coverage of Vernon, BC. A suite of photographs within the subseries provides coverage of the Armstrong Fall Fair, later termed the Interior Provincial Exhibition (IPE) during the 1940s and early 1950s.

Scenes captured depict landscapes, street scenes, industry, and labour, with special attention paid to the orchard and forestry industries.

Historical photograph collection

Subseries consists of photographs collected by Doug Cox in service to his historical research and writing. Materials derive from a wide variety of provenancial and subject contexts, which are resolved at the item level.

Chinese Freemasons (Cheekungtong)

Subseries consists of business records related to the Chinese Freemasons (also known by the names Cheekungtong and Dart Coon Club). With its first branches established in Quesnel and Victoria in 1876, the Chinese Freemasons were one of many benevolent associations dedicated to providing social welfare to immigrants in need and Chinese labourers out of work after the completion of the railway and to protecting the Chinese against racism.

These records include correspondence, account books, donation records and solicitations for funds to assist the Chinese in Canada, receipts for club expenses, club election records, business cards, invitations, certificates, and photographs, as well as books on topics such as Chinese games and Chinese traditional medicine.

Early British Columbia History

Subseries consists of records related to the early history of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. These records pertain to a great many areas of British Columbia history and highlight the development of the province, including voyages of discovery and exploration in the Pacific Northwest, the fur trade (including records from the Hudson's Bay Company), British Columbia geography such as the mapping and navigation of rivers and mountains, British Columbia flora and fauna, and the development of communities and regions around British Columbia including the social, cultural, and economic history of major centres such as Victoria and Vancouver.

These records include published monographs, manuscripts, pamphlets, cards, serials, correspondence, maps and maritime charts, technical drawings, journals and diaries, newspaper clippings, broadsides, scrapbooks, photographs, engraving plates, certificates, stamps, and ephemera such as calendars, menus, invitations, and receipts.

This subseries includes a number of rare items, such as "Order in council constituting the Supreme Court of Civil Justice of Vancouver Island" (1858) which is thought to be the first book published in B.C. or "The Frazer River Thermometer: Great Gold Discoveries of 1858” which provides a very rare example of a San Francisco broadside advertising the Fraser River gold rush.

Canadian Pacific Railway Company steamships

Subseries consists of records related to the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's steamship division, which was first introduced in 1887 following the completion of the transcontinental railway. The Canadian Pacific Steamship Company (later the Canadian Pacific Steamships Ocean Services Ltd.), built a fleet of opulent ocean liners built to C.P.R. specifications, including several which operated as Royal Mail Ships for the British Empire. Canadian Pacific steamships became known for the luxury they offered passengers in addition to functioning as a major cargo carrier. Records in this subseries pertain to the Canadian Pacific steamships themselves, such as shipbuilding specifications, as well as to the ships' operations. There is a particular emphasis on the Empress line of ocean lines, although records about ships from other lines, such as the Princess and Duchess lines, are also found in this subseries.

These records include photographs and photograph albums, scrapbooks, ships histories, pamphlets, postcards, broadsides, newspaper clippings, diaries, menus and programmes, passenger lists, sailings schedules and fares, boarding cards, ship plans and technical drawings, reports, invoices, inventories, account books, log books, service records, maps, baggage labels, stationery, correspondence, ephemera, and artefacts.

Travel and Tourism with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company

Subseries consists of records related to the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's travel and tourism services, advertised as "The World's Greatest Travel System." The C.P.R. operated fleets of trains and steamships as well as luxury hotels and resorts, such as the Empress Hotel in Victoria and the Royal York Hotel in Toronto. The records in this subseries reflect the extensive promotion of travel opportunities across Canada and the world. Many of the records in this subseries relate to travel on the company's luxurious ocean liners, which were very popular in the 1920s and 1930s; the C.P.R. offered cruises not only to destinations such as the Caribbean or the Mediterranean, but also four-month-long around-the-world tours that called at 81 ports in 23 countries. The subseries also contains a small number of records related to travel on the Canadian Pacific Air Lines, which by the 1970s had overtaken ocean liners for international travel.

These records include pamphlets, photographs and photo albums, scrapbooks, travel diaries, postcards, newspaper clippings, newsletters, posters and broadsides, maps, steamship track charts, deck plans, menus, programmes, cards listing services and fares, baggage tags, C.P.R. stationery, correspondence, staff reports, rail and ship timetables, itineraries, passenger lists, and memorabilia.

Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company

Subseries contains records related to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company, which operated rail lines on Vancouver Island. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company extended the line to additional cities after acquiring the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway in 1905. Records in this subseries pertain to the railway's business and operations, and include records highlighting employee duties and activities.

These records include papers related to the construction and incorporation of the railway, financial statements, reports, correspondence, blueprints, train timetables, tickets and train passes, advertisements, newspaper clippings, employee handbooks, staff circulars, employee diaries and logs, shipping receipts, and photographs.

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